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Elephant

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Elephant
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Elephant
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Elephant _Desigend by ringmaster ( http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:41959/#files ) _Elephant (family Elephantidae), largest living land animal, characterized by its long trunk (elongated upper lip and nose), columnar legs, and huge head with temporal glands and wide, flat ears. Elephants are grayish to brown in colour, and their body hair is sparse and coarse. They are found most often in savannas, grasslands, and forests but occupy a wide range of habitats, including deserts, swamps, and highlands in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. _The African savanna, or bush, elephant (Loxodonta africana) weighs up to 8,000 kg (9 tons) and stands 3 to 4 metres (10 to 13 feet) at the shoulder. The African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), which lives in rainforests, was recognized as a separate species in 2000 and is smaller than the savanna elephant. It has slender, downward-pointing tusks. The common belief that there existed “pygmy” and “water” elephants has no basis; they are probably varieties of the African forest elephants. The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) weighs about 5,500 kg and has a shoulder height of up to 3.5 metres. The Asian elephant includes three subspecies: the Indian, or mainland (E. m. indicus), the Sumatran (E. m. sumatranus), and the Sri Lankan (E. m. maximus). African elephants have much larger ears, which are used to dissipate body heat. _Elephants live in small family groups led by old females (cows). Where food is plentiful, the groups join together. Most males (bulls) live in bachelor herds apart from the cows. Males and females both possess two glands that open between the eye and ear. Elephants of all ages and sexes secrete a fluid called temporin out of this orifice. Males, however, enter a “musth period,” during which they secrete a fluid differing in viscosity from the fluid secreted when they are not in musth. Serum testosterone during musth is higher than in a nonmusth elephant, and the animal’s behaviour is erratic; they are uncontrollable (musth is Hindi for “intoxicated”), sometimes even by their own handlers (mahouts). Musth is the time for establishing reproductive hierarchy, which can differ from the usual social hierarchy in that a male in musth outranks nonmusth males. In the wild, males are usually at their prime physical state during musth and ordinarily do most of the breeding. _Elephants are able to assess the reproductive status of one another by using their keen sense of smell. Inside the skull, elephants possess from seven to nine nasal turbinals with specialized sensitive tissues for olfaction. (Humans have only three turbinals; dogs have five.) When a female is in estrus, or when a male is in musth, an elephant apparently can detect airborne hormones. Once “collected,” the information is then passed to the Jacobson’s organ, located on the roof of the mouth. This organ conveys the molecules to the brain for analysis. Hormones are also sniffed directly from urine and feces. _Gestation is the longest of any mammal (18–22 months). The newborn elephant is about a metre (3.3 feet) tall and weighs about 100 kg (220 pounds). It suckles by using the mouth, not the trunk, at mammary glands located in the chest region. Weaning is a long process and sometimes continues until the mother can no longer tolerate the pokes of her offspring’s emerging tusks. After weaning, many hours of each day are spent eating. An adult elephant consumes about 100 kg of food and 100 litres (26 gallons) of water per day; these amounts can double for a hungry and thirsty individual. Such consumption makes elephants an important ecological factor; they substantially affect and even alter the ecosystems they live in. (http://www.britannica.com/)
Additional Information

Additional Information

SKU 10000065
Length [mm] 130
Width [mm] 58.54
Height [mm] 93.5
Volume [cm³] 222.54
Area [cm²] 337.19
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