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Penguins

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Penguins
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Penguins
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Penguins _Desigend by davidmus ( http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:416882 ) _Penguin (order Sphenisciformes), any of 18 species of flightless marine birds that live only in the Southern Hemisphere. The majority of the 18 species live not in Antarctica but rather between latitudes 45° and 60° S, where they breed on islands. A few penguins inhabit temperate regions, and one, the Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus), lives at the Equator. _The stocky, short-legged appearance of penguins has endeared them to people worldwide. They range from about 35 cm (14 inches) in height and approximately 1 kg (about 2 pounds) in weight, in the little blue, or fairy, penguin (Eudyptula minor) to 115 cm (45 inches) and 25 to 40 kg (55 to 90 pounds) in the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Most are black on the back and white below, often with lines of black across the upper breast or spots of white on the head. Colour is rare, being limited to red or yellow irises of the eye in some species; red beaks or feet in a few; yellow brow tufts in the three species of Eudyptes; and orange and yellow on the head, neck, and breast in the emperor and king (A. patagonica) penguins.The total populations of some species, such as the emperor, are estimated in the hundreds of thousands, but most species of smaller penguins certainly run into the millions. Immense island breeding colonies, some teeming with hundreds of thousands of nesting pairs, represent a large potential food resource, but the economic importance of penguins is negligible. Nineteenth-century whalers and seal hunters visited some colonies for meat and eggs, and a penguin oil industry once took large numbers of the birds. By the early 20th century, however, this exploitation was no longer profitable, and most colonies were left alone or actively protected. Some species are now increasing in numbers, apparently as a result of the mid-20th century’s decimation of Antarctic whales, which compete with penguins for the krill (minute crustaceans) on which both feed. Penguin populations, however, are highly vulnerable to changes in climate and ocean temperature, including recent global warming. Penguins also are very sensitive to depletion of local fish populations by humans. _The period of growth of the young bird from hatching to complete independence varies from two months, in the smallest species of the genus Eudyptula, to 51/2 months in the emperor and 12 to 14 months in the king penguin.Penguins are adapted for rapid locomotion in water, in which the wings, or flippers, are used for propulsion; the birds “fly” underwater. When moving at high speed, they frequently leave the water in leaps that may carry them a metre or more through the air; it is during this time that they breathe.On land, penguins are much more awkward, even amusing, as they rock from side to side as they walk. Despite their short legs, however, penguins can run with surprising speed. Some, such as the northern rockhopper (Eudyptes moseleyi), the southern rockhopper (E. chrysocome), and Adélie penguins, move among rocks with agility, using the flippers for balance. On snow or ice, many penguins “toboggan,” sliding on the belly as they propel themselves with the feet and flippers. The flippers, along with the beak, are the prime weapons in defense and attack. _The type of food utilized varies with the species, the geographic region, and the time of year. Most of the smaller southern penguins feed primarily upon krill, which attain high densities in the rich, well-oxygenated Antarctic waters. Cephalopods (squid and cuttlefish) and small fishes may form substantial fractions of the food, and in a few, such as the Cape penguin, fish is the basic element of the diet. The total weight of food consumed by a large penguin colony is prodigious, often exceeding several tons per day.
Additional Information

Additional Information

SKU 10000268
Length [mm] 91.32
Width [mm] 47.4
Height [mm] 95
Volume [cm³] 105.58
Area [cm²] 224.77
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